Oldest Cities: Here are the first 6 cities built in the world

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Oldest Cities: Here are the first 6 cities built in the world

Until recently, the accepted archaeological view of why and when cities arose was very strong. Accordingly, the people abandoned their nomadic lifestyle and settled down and set up towns in order to cultivate the land and raise their livestock. However, with the discovery of Göbeklitepe in our country, this view was overturned and it was suggested that people actually start settling down to stay near religious monuments. Whatever the truth, the Neolithic Revolution was a time when people abandoned their hunter-gatherer way of life and built villages, towns, and cities. The cities established in this period were the first cities of humanity. Let’s take a look at the oldest cities in the world together.


Çatalhöyük in Konya is one of the oldest cities believed to have been founded 9,000 years ago. Unlike today’s cities, they had neither streets nor public buildings. The roofs were the first way to get around the city. Because these adobe houses were planned next to each other. While each house had stairs leading to the roof, these roofs were also used for ventilation.

There were no mass graves in the city. Instead, when people died, he was buried under his house. Skulls were removed during the burial of people. A head made of clay and paints to recreate the face and leave a beautiful memory. Archaeologists believe that these memories of the dead may have been used in rituals.

The most striking detail about Çatalhoyuk is the “seated woman” figure in almost every part of the settlement. James Mellart, who first visited and excavated the site in 1958, claimed that these statues formed the backbone of the Catalhoyuk religion. Archaeologist Ian Hodder said the statues represent something else, because while the statues bear a female figure in the front, only a skeleton in the back, this is more likely to represent the role of life and death in society. At the same time, Hodder claimed that the people of Châttalhoyoc were equal, had no private homes, and no evidence of discrimination between men and women.

Chatalhoyuk’s economy consists of agriculture. In the region, mainly barley, peas, almonds and pistachios were grown. In addition, archaeologists mentioned that there was animal husbandry in the city and traces of cutlery were found in the city. The total population of Chatalhoyoc, one of humanity’s oldest cities, is estimated to be around 10,000.

Eridu, Uruk and Ur

If we are talking about the first cities of mankind, then the Sumerians can not be mentioned. The Sumerians are considered the most ancient civilization in the world and, of course, they were among the first to build large cities. The oldest city built by the Sumerians was Eridu. It is estimated that it was founded around 5400 BC, near the Persian Gulf, and the city was abandoned after nearly 4800 years. This remarkable time period means that the city has gone through many eras and has been rebuilt and rebuilt many times.

The city of Ur, also founded by the Sumerians in 3800 BC, was located on the Mesopotamian plain. Around 2500 BC, the city was home to unprecedented wealth. The most famous of the Sumerian temples, called the ziggurat, was located in the city of Ur. However, new archaeological finds indicate that the area was inhabited before 3800 BC, possibly around 6500 BC.

Uruk, which was built by the Sumerians and is considered one of the oldest cities in the world, was founded around 4000 BC. In 3100 BC, when the city was at its peak, it was home to about 40,000 people. Additionally, around 90,000 people are believed to live in its immediate surroundings. This population made Ur the most populous city at that time. Ur, which consisted of adobe buildings, also had many aqueducts. Also, according to legend, Gilgamesh was ruling the city around 2800 BC.

Ain Ghazal

The settlement at Ain Ghazal, one of the oldest cities in the world, is believed to have begun around 10,300 BC. Founded near the banks of the Farka River in what is now Jordan, the city had a population of 3,000 and was at its peak around 7,000 BC. The people of Ain Ghazal, who lived in rectangular brick houses, each consisting of two rooms, benefited from the rich environment of the area and met their food needs through agriculture and animal husbandry.

The most important element in the culture of this people was the statues, of which 195 pieces have been found so far. Human figures are topped with hair and clothing, as well as body paints and decorative tattoos. The most striking feature of the discovered statues is that 3 of them have two heads.

Like in Çatalhoyuk, people in Ain Ghazal were buried under their homes after their death. After their flesh had rotted, the skulls were removed and decorated. However, not everyone who died at ‘Ain Ghazal was buried. Archaeological finds show that most people were buried in rubbish pits with waste.


The ruins of Mahagarh, one of the first cities of civilization, are located in the Kachi plain of present-day Pakistan. Estimated to have been founded around 7000 BC, the people of this city are believed to be the original ancestors of the Indus Valley Civilizations. Archaeological finds show that the people of Mahagarh, who built mud-brick houses, cultivated a range of crops such as barley, wheat, dates and jujube. However, the antiquities show that the population gave importance to handicrafts; He explains that bead production, stone cutting, and metalworking are some of the important industries in which the public is involved.

Ceramic figures were also of great importance to the people of Mahagarh. While only female figurines were designed until about 4000 BC, it is claimed that these figurines may have religious significance and may represent the mother goddess. Early figurines lacked detail, while later figures feature details such as hairstyles, formed breasts and a woman holding a child.

Reward: First City Atlantis

Although archaeologists and historians consider it nothing more than a fairy tale, some argue that the city of Atlantis is now located in western Mauritania. This place also fits Plato’s geographical description. Because in the north of this place, which is called the “eye of the desert”, as described by Plato, there is a large geological structure consisting of huge mountains with flowing waters and concentric rings. Evidence also suggests that there may have been a series of major cataclysms that swept away any remnants of civilization in the Atlantic Ocean. To read details about Atlantis, you can take a look at our content titled Atlantis: The Lost Underwater Continent and Its Mysterious Story.

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