After World War I, the Ottoman Empire was occupied by the Allied forces, and the Turkish War of Independence, called the period of national struggle, took place between 1919-1922. During this period, many beneficial and harmful societies were established in Anatolia. Well, who are the mischievous communities that supported the occupation that began with the Mudros truce and worked side by side with the invaders? What is the purpose of harmful communities and who are the proponents of harmful communities?
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Communities harmful to the national existence
Societies that act according to the policy of the Allied Powers and the Istanbul government and oppose the state and independence are called harmful societies. So who are the harmful communities?
Kurdish Tele Association
The Kurdish Tali Association, which was founded on December 30, 1918 in Istanbul and has branches in the eastern provinces, aims to establish an independent Kurdish state. This association had relations with the Freedom and Accord Party and British government officials. England was the biggest supporter of the community, which aimed to establish an independent Kurdish state.
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Teali-i Islam Association
The Teali-i Islam Association was founded to prevent the national struggle in Anatolia. The society, which has its center in Istanbul, has worked extensively in Konya and its surroundings. They have accepted that the only salvation for the country is the Khilafah and the Sultanate. The biggest supporter of this association is Hürriyet ve İtilaf Fırkası.
British Fighters Association
The British Muhipleri Cemiyeti Company was founded on May 20, 1919 in Istanbul. The association, which included individuals such as Damat Ferit Pasha and Sait al-Mulla, defended the British Mandate and expressed hostility to the Turkish national presence. The society, supported by the British, aimed to prevent a war of independence by causing confusion in Anatolia. However, he became a supporter of all hostile actions and organizations against the War of Independence.
Freedom and Accord Party
Founded in 1911 in Istanbul, Hürriyet ve Tilaf Fırkası is the most important opposition party founded against the Committee of Union and Progress. The society, which received support from and cooperated with the British, saw the national struggle as unionist and pursued a policy of provocation in internal rebellions. However, he took the position of sultanate and caliphate.
Wilson Principles Society
The Wilson Principles Society, also known as the Wilson Principles Society, was founded on December 4, 1918 in Istanbul and operated for only two months. This community, which believed that the Ottoman Empire would be civilized and held firm thanks to the United States, defended the American mandate.
Ottoman Peace and Salvation Party
The center of society founded by opponents of union and progress is Istanbul. He said that loyalty to the Sultan was the only way to save the country. It carried out various collaborations with the Freedom and Accord Party and pursued a policy based on the principles of constitutionalism and democracy. The Peace Party and Salameh Osmaniye received support from the British.
Nejiban Military Association
The Neciban Military Association, which is one of the harmful associations, was established in Istanbul during the period of national struggle. This community consists of a group of ex-soldiers, demobilized or retired soldiers who declared their opposition to the War of Independence. This community, which was on the side of the Sultanate, was instrumental in the emergence of major revolts around Hindak, Duzce and Adapazari.
Mavri Mira Association
Mavre Mira, a harmful association, was founded in the Greek Patriarchate in Istanbul. The purpose of this association, which received financial aid from the Greek government, was to form gangs in the Ottoman provinces, manage these gangs, and carry out parades and propaganda activities. He was also responsible for transporting weapons and ammunition to the Ottoman Empire under the name of humanitarian aid.
Greek Pontus Society
The Greek Assembly of Pontus, with its center in Samsun, aims to establish the Republic of Pontus on the territory from Ennebolu to Batumi. Non-military members of this association formed gangs and spied for Russia and Greece. The Greek Society of Pontus was supported by the British in order to facilitate the conquest of Anatolia.
Iterian ethnic community
The Etnik-i Eterya Society was founded in 1814 under the name of Filik-i Eterya to gain independence for Greece. This community caused the Cretan revolt in 1896. During the First World War, he wanted to revive the old Byzantium in the lands where the Greeks lived.
The official name of the society, which functions as a sub-branch of the Etnik-i Eterya Association, is the Hellenic Emigration Commission. The aim of the association was to convince examination committees from abroad that the majority of the Greek population was in western Anatolia, eastern Black Sea and Thrace. For this reason, Greeks from Greece and Russia migrated to these regions.
Hinchak Assemblies (1887) and Dashnak Sution (1840)
These communities were founded to arm the Armenians, spread Armenian nationalism, and ensure the independence of the Armenians in eastern Anatolia. The Dashnak Society was founded in Georgia, and the Hinchak Society was founded in Geneva. The French were the biggest supporters of these societies.
What are the common features of harmful societies?
- They served the interests of the states founded on the empire and facilitated the conquest of the country.
- They aimed to foment revolutions and prevent the liberation of the nation.
- These associations have ignored the independence and power of Turkey and put their own interests above the interests of the nation.
- They advocated guardianship and nepotism and believed that independence and power would come in this way.
- In the Ottoman Empire, which was in a difficult situation, they did everything to prevent people from supporting the national struggle.
- Operating in different regions of the Ottoman Empire, they facilitated the invasion of enemies.
- And by using pressure and force, they drove the Ottoman citizens to despair.
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