Viewed as one of the most important events in world history, the Cold War was a political and military tension between the Soviet Union and the United States. The reason why this war is called “cold” is because the two sides did not openly declare war on each other, and this period passed through various moves and an arms race. In this list, we have compiled the answers to all the questions like what is the cold war, what between countries was the period of the cold war, and how the cold war started and ended.
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What is the cold war? between which countries?
This war period is known as the political and military tension between the two superpowers, the countries of the Eastern Bloc led by the Soviet Union, and the Western Bloc led by the United States. The Truman Doctrine (1947) marked the beginning of the Cold War and lasted until 1991, when the Soviet Union collapsed. This period affected a large number of the world’s population. During the Cold War, NATO was known as the Western Alliance. The Western Alliance consists of countries that are or are not members of NATO. The Eastern Bloc consisted of communist and non-communist countries that were members of the Warsaw Pact. In addition to these two alliances, there was another bloc called the Non-Aligned Movement, which did not support either of them. Yugoslavia, China and some Eastern Bloc countries were also members of the Non-Aligned Movement. The reason for this is the differences of opinion between these countries and the Soviet Union.
So where did the term Cold War come from? The reason for calling this period, which lasted nearly fifty years, “the cold.” The two sides do not declare war on each other directly. This period only went through political and military tensions.
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Arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union
The United States rolled up its sleeves to produce the world’s first atomic bomb posing a threat to Nazi Germany. But before the atomic bomb was made, Nazi Germany capitulated. The United States continued the project and succeeded in creating an atomic bomb. Use the atomic bombs he made on Japan. The only country that had an atomic bomb at that time was the United States, but that didn’t last long. Four years after dropping the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, the Soviet Union made its first prototype of the atomic bomb and the tests were successful.
This prototype of the atomic bomb marked the beginning of the arms race between the United States of America and the Soviet Union. Thus, the two sides hostile to each other continued to produce atomic bombs. Over time, a hydrogen bomb was created, which was about 100 times more powerful than an atomic bomb. Later, technology was developed and nuclear warheads began to be produced, of which only eight can destroy the world.
The Truman Doctrine became the official policy of the United States
George Kennan was a diplomat who served in the Soviet Union in 1946. He sends an informational message to warn the United States of America at that time. Kennan states that the Soviet Union is trying to increase its influence over the world. However, it does ask the United States to take responsibility and view the Soviet Union as a threat. President Truman adopts Kennan’s article and makes it official US policy.
After this doctrine, the United States declares that it will stand against totalitarian regimes that adopt a policy of violence. After the declaration of the Truman Doctrine, the Cold War began, which would last about 50 years.
The Korean War broke out
secondly. During World War II, the Japanese occupied Korea, but after a while, Japan gave up and retreated. After that, the Soviet Union began to rule North Korea, and the United States in the South. After a while, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to an agreement and withdrew from the country. But they leave behind two opposing governments. North Korean leader Kim Il Sung wants to annex a very weak South Korea, but the Truman Doctrine does not allow this. Later, although Kim Il Sung asks the Soviet Union for help, he does not get the answer he expects. The leader of the Soviet Union, Stalin, directs the leader of North Korea to Communist China. Over time, he participated in the war in China.
The Marshall Plan began
Realizing that only political and military force would not be enough, the United States needed a new plan. Thus, he developed an economic suite. Then the Marshall Plan was designed. secondly. The devastating impact of World War II destabilized European nations. The United States believed that the Communist parties would become stronger because of this instability. To prevent this, George C. Marshall provided financial aid to European countries. After a while, the Truman Doctrine was found to be rather weak. secondly. Notorious for his aggressive sponsors in World War II, Eisenhower won the 1952 presidential election. Eisenhower involved the CIA and conducted covert operations to prevent the development of communism. Of course, during this period the KGB, the intelligence agency of the Soviet Union, was also conducting top secret operations.
The Berlin Wall was built
Korea was not the only country caught up in a power struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union. He suffered the same fate in Germany. secondly. Germany was divided after World War II between the Soviet Union, France, Britain and the United States and was divided into four regions. While the Allied Powers agreed to revive Germany, the Soviet Union began World War II. He did not invest in the eastern region that was under his administration, and prevented its development, as Germany suffered greatly in World War II.
In 1948, the Allied Powers united the three regions they ruled to form the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). Seeing this as a threat to the Soviet Union, Stalin created the German Democratic Republic and began strengthening the region. For nearly 40 years, Germany was divided into two parts. In the process, West Germany became economically stronger than East Germany. Then began migrations from east to west and the Berlin Wall was built to prevent this.
The animosity between the Soviet Union and the United States increased further because of the Berlin Wall. Many bad things happened because of the Cold War, such as the Vietnam War, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In the end, the Eastern Bloc was dissolved and the so-called Cold War left behind.
How did the cold war end?
In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev became the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Soviet Socialism. This situation caused some easing on both sides. With regime change in Eastern Europe, there was a setback in the Cold War when the Berlin Wall fell. Mikhail Gorbachev, winner of the 1990 Nobel Peace Prize, dissolved the Soviet Union in 1991, thus ending the Cold War.
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