The Roman Republic is the period that began after the overthrow of the kingdom in 509 BC. In the first 200 years of this period, the Republic’s territory expanded to the Mediterranean Sea. Over the next century, suzerainty was established in the Iberian Peninsula, Greece, North Africa, and what is now southern France. In the past 200 years, the Roman Republic controlled Macedonia, most of Anatolia, and the rest of France. We told you when the Roman Republic was founded and what happened in this period. Here is the history of the Roman Republic.
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History of the Roman Republic
A series of important events occurred at the end of the Roman Kingdom and the beginning of the Roman Republic. In 509 BC, King Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was overthrown by the nobles of Rome. Lars Porsena, King of Colosseum, laid siege to Rome. The city signed a subsidy agreement with Carthage. The Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was consecrated and a new office called consulship established.
The Vasti Consuls (documents with the names of the consuls or judges describing the major events of the period) are essential to understanding the Roman Republic from 503 BC, when it was considered authoritative. Another very important way to understand this period of Roman history is the ritual clavus annalis. This practice began one year after the dedication of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus and consisted of hammering a bronze nail into the right of the altar once a year. The first nail was placed in 508 BC. The Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus contained the cella of Jupiter as well as Minerva and Juno.
Scylla: Architectural section in Christian places of worship and pagan temples.
After Tarquin’s departure, Rome suffered from internal and external conflicts. Most of the country spent the fifth century BC struggling rather than developing. From 510 BC to 275 BC, the city grew to become the dominant power in the entire Italian peninsula as the government grappled with a series of internal political problems. From the Battle of Regalus (496 BC), when Rome defeated the Latins, to the Pyrrhic Wars against Pyrrhus of Epirus (280-275 BC), Rome was a dominant and combatant great power in the West. Thanks to this expansion, the social and political structure of the republic gradually developed. From this simple beginning, the city would establish a new government and dominate the Iberian Peninsula, Greece, North Africa, France, Macedonia, and Anatolia. These lands would remain under Roman control throughout the Republic and into the years of formation of the Roman Empire.
Transition to the Roman Republic
Rome’s transition from a monarchy to a republic led to serious internal social tensions. The lack of control over the city led the neighboring tribes to besiege the city and reduce their influence. For this reason, Rome had to assert its identity several times during the first 70 years of the Republic. Later, the consuls were appointed, who would replace the leadership of the Roman kings, years later. The republican administration in Rome began with the introduction of a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and appointed by the Roman Senate.
Many historians believe that the praetor maximus (the most authoritative praetor in the Roman Republic) was appointed for only one year during the early stages of the Roman Republic. Later, his duties were divided into two parts, since two consuls were elected simultaneously to govern Rome. This form of government lasted until 449 BC with the law of Valeria Horia.
praetor: The name given to Caesar’s guards in ancient Rome. This word means “the one who rules the country.”
Baş sulh yargıcının konumu, yalnızca Roma senatosunu oluşturan ve Romulus zamanından beri orduyu ve rahipleri kontrol eden “patrici” (seçkin ailelerden oluşan gruba verilen isim) için değildi, çünkü pleblerin, yani ayrıcalıklı sınıftan olmayan Roma vatandaşlarının MÖ 485’e kadar konsül olduklarını gösteren kanıtlar Existing. Political instability caused the strongest factions to form alliances among themselves. From 485 BC, the nobles no longer allowed people to participate in government and began to control all civil and religious matters.
The Republic is also known as the period of constant rivalry between the aristocrats and the commoners, as well as the period when Roman power reached the entire Italian peninsula and Roman law was established in 450 BC with the law of 12 plates. It was also a time of many battles for equality among the Romans. The Laws of the 12 Tablets were written to satisfy the demands of the people.
Until the writing of the Laws of the 12 Boards, Roman law was considered sacred because it was established by kings and popes. It became the basis of all laws in the Western world. Between 133 BC and 27 BC, Rome experienced great internal tensions that led to many civil wars. Proposing a series of laws in favor of the commoners, the Graco brothers also caused a social crisis in Rome.
The fall of the republic
Unlike the Empire, the Republic will not be destroyed by any external threat, but rather will succumb to an internal threat. The Republic’s downfall would come from its inability to adapt to an ever-expanding empire. Even ancient sibyl prophecies predicted that failure would come from within, not from foreign invaders. The demand for citizenship from Roman allies marked these upheavals in the so-called Social Wars of the first century BC (90 – 88 BC).
For years, Roman allies paid tribute and provided soldiers to war, but they weren’t considered citizens. Like their general relatives from many years ago, they wanted to act. It took a revolution for things to change. Full citizenship was finally granted to the people of the entire Italian peninsula (with the exception of slaves), although the Senate warned Roman citizens that it was too dangerous to grant them citizenship. Later, Julius Caesar extended citizenship outside of Italy and granted it to the people of Spain and Gaul.
Around this time, Roman statesman and poet Marcus Tellius Cicero uncovered a plot led by the Roman senator Lucius Sergius Catiline to overthrow the Roman government. Cicero also believed that the Republic was in decline due to moral decay. Besides fear and anxiety, problems like this attracted the attention of three people in 60 BC: Julius Caesar, Janius Pompeius Magnus, and Marcus Licinius Crassus. Crassus rose to fame by defeating Spartacus and his followers in 71 BC. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus was prominent in Spain as well as in the East.
On the other hand, Caesar proved to be a capable commander. Together, the three men formed what historians call the First Triumvirate. For nearly a decade they controlled both the consulates and the military command. After Caesar left the consulship in 59 BC, he and his army advanced north into Gaul and Germany. While Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus became ruler of Spain (although he ruled from Rome), Crassus was defeated and killed at the Battle of Carrhae.
Growing tensions rose between Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Caesar. While Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus was jealous of Caesar’s success and fame, Caesar wanted to return to politics. These differences eventually led to war, and they met at Pharsalus in 48 BC. Pompey was defeated and fled to Egypt. Caesar fulfilled his destiny by securing both the eastern provinces and North Africa, returning to Rome as a hero only to be declared dictator for life. Many of his enemies and a few of his allies saw his new position as a serious threat to the establishment of the Republic, and despite a series of popular reforms, his assassination in 44 BC brought the Republic to its knees. His heir and protégé Octavian subjugated Mark Antony and eventually became the first emperor of Rome with the name of Augustus. The Republic perished, and the Roman Empire was reborn from its ashes.
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